Monday, February 23, 2009

PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASES

Present Participle adalah bentuk V-ing yang berfungsi sebagai adjective atau adverb.
Present Participle Phrase adalah bentuk V-ing yang diikuti oleh object atau adverb
dari V-ing tesebut. Fungsinya sama yaitu sebagai adjective atau adverb. Participial
phrase yang berfungsi sebagai adjective asalnya dari adjective clause. Participial
phrase yang berfungsi sebagai adverb asalnya dari adverb clause.

Example:

A student hoping to finish college in three years must work very hard. participle phrase as an adjective modifying 'A student'.
Walking along the street, I met my first boyfriend. participle phrase as adverb

PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASE AS AN ADJECTIVE

You can join ideas by means of PARTICIPLE PHRASES :

Look at these two ideas:
I photographed the girl. She was sleeping on the grass.

You can join them in these two ways:

I photographed the girl who was sleeping on the grass. (CLAUSE).
I photographed the girl sleeping on the grass. (PHRASE).

OTHER EXAMPLES

I know the student waiting at the bus stop.
The game being played is the last for the season.
Anyone hoping to study abroad needs a high TOEFL Score.
The course being offered is very difficult.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASE AS AN ADVERB

You can also make PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASES for your sentences with

"after" and "before".

Look at these two sentences:

Patricia paid for the video. She had no money left for her bus fare.

These two ideas can be joined in different ways:

WITH CLAUSES
After she had paid for the video,
Patricia had no money left for her bus fare home.

WITH PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASES
After paying for the video,
Patricia had no money left for the bus fare home.

WITH ANOTHER KIND OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASES
After having paid for the video,
Patricia had no money for the bus fare home.

WITH ANOTHER KIND OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE PHRASES
Having paid for the video,
Patricia had no money left for the bus fare home.

OTHER EXAMPLES

Hoping to win the race, de Castella quickened his pace.
Tom has spent many years studying the Vietnamese classics.
After doing the dishes, I finally started on my homework.
Not wanting to offend them, I accepted their invitation.
Having worked hard all term, I felt I needed a break.
While working on the Aborigine settlement, Tom learned Pitjanjatjara.


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