Friday, May 15, 2009

Passive Voice


Passive Voice

Kalimat pasif adalah suatu kalimat dimana subject-nya dikenai tindakan/ perbuatan, ini berbeda dengan kalimat aktif dimana subject-lah yang melakukan perbuatan/ tindakan. Ciri utamanya adalah pada Verb, yang dibentuk oleh ‘to be’ dan kerja bentuk ketiga (verb-3) atau past participle.

To be + Verb-3

Examples:

Subject Verb
Rudy repaired my bicycle yesterday.
My bicycle was repaired by Rudy yesterday.

Beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam mengubah kalimat aktif menjadi pasif, antara lain:

  1. Subject pada kalimat pasif berasal dari object pada kalimat aktif.
  2. Tense pada kalimat pasif mengikuti tense pada kalimat aktifnya.
  3. Hanya kalimat dengan transitive Verb yang bisa diubah kedalam bentuk pasif.

Perhatikan perubahan dari kalimat aktif menjadi pasif pada masing-masing tenses :

1. Simple Present
Active:
My mother cooks the meal everyday.
Passive:
The meal is cooked by mother everyday.
2. Simple Past
Active:
My mother cooked the meal yesterday.
Passive:
The meal was cooked by mother yesterday.
3. Present Continuous
Active:
My mother is cooking the meal at the moment
Passive:
The meal is being cooked by mother at the moment
4. Past continuous
Active:
My mother was cooking the meal when I arrived.
Passive:
The meal was being cooked by mother when I arrived.
5. Present perfect
Active:
My mother has cooked the meal.
Passive
The meal has been cooked by mother.
6. Past perfect
Active:
My mother had cooked the meal before the children came home from school.
Passive:
The meal had been cooked by mother before the children came home from school.
7. Present perfect continuous
Active:
My mother has been cooking the meal since I arrived.
Passive:
The meal has been being cooked by mother since I arrived.
8. Past perfect continuous
Active:
My mother had been cooking the meal for an hour when father came home from work.
Passive:
The meal had been being cooked by mother for an hour when father came home from work.
9. Simple Future
Active:
My mother will cook the meal this afternoon.
Passive:
The meal will be cooked by mother this afternoon.
10. Future perfect
Active:
My mother will have cooked the meal when the children come home from school this afternoon.
Passive:
The meal will have been cooked by mother when the children come home from school this afternoon.
11. Future Continuous
Active:
My mother will be cooking the meal at 4 this afternoon.
Passive
The meal will be being cooked by mother at 4 this afternoon.
12. Future perfect continuous
Active:
My mother will have been cooking the meal for an hour when father comes home from work this afternoon.
Passive:

The meal will have been being cooked by mother for an hour when father comes home from work this afternoon.

Rumus pola aktif – pasif untuk semua tenses :

Present

Active

Passive

Simple

S+V1(V+s/es)+O

S+ is/am/are + V3

Rita writes a letter
A letter is written by Rita

Continuous

S + is/am/are + V- ing

S + is/am/are + being + V3

Rita is writing a letter
A letter is being written by Rita

Perfect

S + Have/has + V3

S + have/has + been + V3

Rita has written a letter
A letter has been written by Rita

Perfect Continuous

S+have/has+been +V-ing

S + have /has + been + being+V 3

Rita has been writing a letter
A letter been being written by Rita

Past

Active

passive

Simple

S + V2+ O

S + was/were + V3

Rita wrote a letter
A letter was written by Rita

Continuous

S + was/were + V- ing

S + was/were + being + V3

Rita was writing a letter
A letter was being written by Rita

Perfect

S + had + V3

S + had + been + V3

Rita had written a letter
A letter had been written by Rita

Perfect Continuous

S + had + been + V-ing

S + had + been + being +V 3

Rita had been writing a letter.
A letter had been being written by Rita.

Future

Active

passive

Simple

S + will +V1+ O

S + will + be + V3

Rita will write a letter
A letter will be written by Rita

Continuous

S + will + be + V- ing

S + will + be+ being + V3

Rita will be writing a letter
A letter will be being written by Rita

Perfect

S + will + have + V3

S + will + have + been + V3

Rita will have written a letter
A letter will have been written by Rita

Perfect Continuous

S + will + have + been + V-ing

S + will + have + been + being +V 3

Rita will have been writing a letter A letter will have been being written by Rita

Past Future

Active

passive

Past future

S + would + V1+ O

S + would + be + V3

Rita would write a letter A letter would be written by Rita

Past future Continuous

S + would + be + V- ing

S + would + be+ being + V3

Rita would be writing a letter A letter would be being written by Rita

Past future Perfect

S + would + have + V3

S + would + have + been + V3

Rita would have written a letter A letter would have been written by Rita

Past future Perfect Continuous

S+would+have+been+V-ing

S+ would+have+been+being+V3

Rita would have been writing a letter A letter would have been being written by Rita

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